给特定的 route 传参

Navigator 组件支持通过使用通用标识符从应用程序的任何地方导航到特定路由。在某些情况下,你可能还希望能够传递参数给特定路由。例如,你希望导航到 /user 路由并携带上用户信息。

The Navigator provides the ability to navigate to a named route from any part of an app using a common identifier. In some cases, you might also need to pass arguments to a named route. For example, you might wish to navigate to the /user route and pass information about the user to that route.

在 Flutter 中,你能通过提供额外的 argumentsNavigator.pushNamed() 方法方便地完成这个任务。通过使用 ModalRoute.of 方法或 MaterialAppCupertinoApp 构造器中的 onGenerateRoute() 来获取参数。

You can accomplish this task using the arguments parameter of the Navigator.pushNamed() method. Extract the arguments using the ModalRoute.of method or inside an onGenerateRoute() function provided to the MaterialApp or CupertinoApp constructor.

这个章节讲解的是如何给特定路由传递参数并使用 ModelRoute.of()onGenerateRoute() 来读取参数。

This recipe demonstrates how to pass arguments to a named route and read the arguments using ModalRoute.of() and onGenerateRoute() using the following steps:

步骤

Directions

  1. 定义需要传递的参数

    Define the arguments you need to pass.

  2. 创建组件来获取参数

    Create a widget that extracts the arguments.

  3. 把组件注册到路由表中

    Register the widget in the routes table.

  4. 导航到组件

    Navigate to the widget.

1. 定义需要传递的参数

1. Define the arguments you need to pass

首先,定义需要传递给新路由的参数。在这个示例中,传递了两个数据:页面的标题 title 和内容 message

First, define the arguments you need to pass to the new route. In this example, pass two pieces of data: The title of the screen and a message.

创建包含 title 和 message 字段的实体类来同时传递这两个数据。

To pass both pieces of data, create a class that stores this information.

// You can pass any object to the arguments parameter.
// In this example, create a class that contains a customizable
// title and message.
class ScreenArguments {
  final String title;
  final String message;

  ScreenArguments(this.title, this.message);
}

2. 创建组件来获取参数

2. Create a widget that extracts the arguments

接着,创建组件,从 ScreenArguments 提取 titlemessage 参数并展示。为了访问 ScreenArguments,可以使用 ModalRoute.of() 方法。这个方法返回的是当前路由及其携带的参数。

Next, create a widget that extracts and displays the title and message from the ScreenArguments. To access the ScreenArguments, use the ModalRoute.of() method. This method returns the current route with the arguments.

// A widget that extracts the necessary arguments from the ModalRoute.
class ExtractArgumentsScreen extends StatelessWidget {
  static const routeName = '/extractArguments';

  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    // Extract the arguments from the current ModalRoute settings and cast
    // them as ScreenArguments.
    final ScreenArguments args = ModalRoute.of(context).settings.arguments;

    return Scaffold(
      appBar: AppBar(
        title: Text(args.title),
      ),
      body: Center(
        child: Text(args.message),
      ),
    );
  }
}

3. 把组件注册到路由表中

3. Register the widget in the routes table

然后,在 MaterialApp 的路由表 routes 中增加一个入口。路由表 routes 会根据路由的名称来决定需要创建哪个路由。

Next, add an entry to the routes provided to the MaterialApp widget. The routes define which widget should be created based on the name of the route.

MaterialApp(
  routes: {
    ExtractArgumentsScreen.routeName: (context) => ExtractArgumentsScreen(),
  },     
);

4. 导航到组件

4. Navigate to the widget

最后,在用户点击按钮后导航到 ExtractArgumentsScreen。在 Navigator.pushNamed() 方法的 arguments 属性里提供需要传递的参数。随后,ExtractArgumentsScreen 就可以从参数中提取 titlemessage

Finally, navigate to the ExtractArgumentsScreen when a user taps a button using Navigator.pushNamed(). Provide the arguments to the route via the arguments property. The ExtractArgumentsScreen extracts the title and message from these arguments.

// A button that navigates to a named route. The named route
// extracts the arguments by itself.
RaisedButton(
  child: Text("Navigate to screen that extracts arguments"),
  onPressed: () {
    // When the user taps the button, navigate to the specific route
    // and provide the arguments as part of the RouteSettings.
    Navigator.pushNamed(
      context,
      ExtractArgumentsScreen.routeName,
      arguments: ScreenArguments(
        'Extract Arguments Screen',
        'This message is extracted in the build method.',
      ),
    );
  },
);

此外,还可以使用 onGenerateRoute 提取参数

Alternatively, extract the arguments using onGenerateRoute

除了直接从组件里提取参数,你也可以通过 onGenerateRoute() 函数提取参数,然后把参数传递给组件。

Instead of extracting the arguments directly inside the widget, you can also extract the arguments inside an onGenerateRoute() function and pass them to a widget.

onGenerateRoute() 函数会基于给定的 RouteSettings 来创建正确的路由。

The onGenerateRoute() function creates the correct route based on the given RouteSettings.

MaterialApp(
  // Provide a function to handle named routes. Use this function to
  // identify the named route being pushed, and create the correct
  // screen.
  onGenerateRoute: (settings) {
    // If you push the PassArguments route
    if (settings.name == PassArgumentsScreen.routeName) {
      // Cast the arguments to the correct type: ScreenArguments.
      final ScreenArguments args = settings.arguments;

      // Then, extract the required data from the arguments and
      // pass the data to the correct screen.
      return MaterialPageRoute(
        builder: (context) {
          return PassArgumentsScreen(
            title: args.title,
            message: args.message,
          );
        },
      );
    }
  },
);

完整样例

Complete example

import 'package:flutter/material.dart';

void main() => runApp(MyApp());

class MyApp extends StatelessWidget {
  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return MaterialApp(
      // Provide a function to handle named routes. Use this function to
      // identify the named route being pushed, and create the correct
      // Screen.
      onGenerateRoute: (settings) {
        // If you push the PassArguments route
        if (settings.name == PassArgumentsScreen.routeName) {
          // Cast the arguments to the correct type: ScreenArguments.
          final ScreenArguments args = settings.arguments;

          // Then, extract the required data from the arguments and
          // pass the data to the correct screen.
          return MaterialPageRoute(
            builder: (context) {
              return PassArgumentsScreen(
                title: args.title,
                message: args.message,
              );
            },
          );
        }
      },
      title: 'Navigation with Arguments',
      home: HomeScreen(),
    );
  }
}

class HomeScreen extends StatelessWidget {
  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return Scaffold(
      appBar: AppBar(
        title: Text('Home Screen'),
      ),
      body: Center(
        child: Column(
          mainAxisAlignment: MainAxisAlignment.center,
          children: <Widget>[
            // A button that navigates to a named route that. The named route
            // extracts the arguments by itself.
            RaisedButton(
              child: Text("Navigate to screen that extracts arguments"),
              onPressed: () {
                // When the user taps the button, navigate to the specific route
                // and provide the arguments as part of the RouteSettings.
                Navigator.push(
                  context,
                  MaterialPageRoute(
                    builder: (context) => ExtractArgumentsScreen(),
                    // Pass the arguments as part of the RouteSettings. The
                    // ExtractArgumentScreen reads the arguments from these
                    // settings.
                    settings: RouteSettings(
                      arguments: ScreenArguments(
                        'Extract Arguments Screen',
                        'This message is extracted in the build method.',
                      ),
                    ),
                  ),
                );
              },
            ),
            // A button that navigates to a named route. For this route, extract
            // the arguments in the onGenerateRoute function and pass them
            // to the screen.
            RaisedButton(
              child: Text("Navigate to a named that accepts arguments"),
              onPressed: () {
                // When the user taps the button, navigate to a named route
                // and provide the arguments as an optional parameter.
                Navigator.pushNamed(
                  context,
                  PassArgumentsScreen.routeName,
                  arguments: ScreenArguments(
                    'Accept Arguments Screen',
                    'This message is extracted in the onGenerateRoute function.',
                  ),
                );
              },
            ),
          ],
        ),
      ),
    );
  }
}

// A Widget that extracts the necessary arguments from the ModalRoute.
class ExtractArgumentsScreen extends StatelessWidget {
  static const routeName = '/extractArguments';

  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    // Extract the arguments from the current ModalRoute settings and cast
    // them as ScreenArguments.
    final ScreenArguments args = ModalRoute.of(context).settings.arguments;

    return Scaffold(
      appBar: AppBar(
        title: Text(args.title),
      ),
      body: Center(
        child: Text(args.message),
      ),
    );
  }
}

// A Widget that accepts the necessary arguments via the constructor.
class PassArgumentsScreen extends StatelessWidget {
  static const routeName = '/passArguments';

  final String title;
  final String message;

  // This Widget accepts the arguments as constructor parameters. It does not
  // extract the arguments from the ModalRoute.
  //
  // The arguments are extracted by the onGenerateRoute function provided to the
  // MaterialApp widget.
  const PassArgumentsScreen({
    Key key,
    @required this.title,
    @required this.message,
  }) : super(key: key);

  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return Scaffold(
      appBar: AppBar(
        title: Text(title),
      ),
      body: Center(
        child: Text(message),
      ),
    );
  }
}

// You can pass any object to the arguments parameter. In this example,
// create a class that contains both a customizable title and message.
class ScreenArguments {
  final String title;
  final String message;

  ScreenArguments(this.title, this.message);
}

Demonstrates navigating to different routes with arguments